Contact The History of the Folding Bike There have been many who have laid claim to the invention of the folding bike. Humorously, a bike manufacturer who shall remain nameless so as to not unduly embarrass them audaciously claims on their website to have produced the world’s first folding bike in Wishful thinking by their marketing department I suppose. The truth is that the folding bike has been around for considerably longer than one might imagine and most claims of being the first are erroneous. First things first though, you can’t have a folding bike without the invention of the bicycle itself. So a very short history lesson on the bicycle is in order. Here again we have some disputed claims of invention and historians will probably never be able to identify the exact moment of invention.
Brief History: American Waltham Watch Company
Case serial number The Online Database for the Elgin Watch Company can tell you a great deal of information about your watch, based on just the serial number off the movement. The “movement” is also sometimes called the “watch works”. Serial Number off the movement:
patent numbers and dates If you have ever had trouble dating old instruments, this list may be a help. It shows the first patent number issued in each year, so if you have a patent number, this easily yields the approximate date to begin with.
Those three date ranges are differentiated by the presence or absence of certain case and movement markings as well as the nature of any such markings, as explained below. In general, for all time periods, it is important to understand that Bulova watches never provide an obvious date of manufacture anywhere on the watch. Rather, the date must be “de-coded” using symbols, serial numbers, and two-character codes placed on various parts of the watch.
These codes and the manner in which they should be interpreted is the subject of this article. Many observers of Bulova watches are confused by the sometimes seen patent dates stamped on the inside of some Bulova watch cases, and they misinterpret such dates as the time of manufacture. In point of fact, those patent dates apply only to certain aspects of the case design and indicate only when those general designs were patented.
Those designs were used on many watches produced over a number of years, and the applicable patent date in no way indicates when any particular watch was produced. Below are images showing the two patent dates that often cause confusion.
The History of the Folding Bike
The act of writing will force you to define your invention, break down the invention into its elements, and think about variations of the invention. Written materials produced as a result will also be helpful for preparing a patent application. Ask yourself these questions: What problem does my invention solve? How does my invention actually work? Who is my target audience?
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This morning the Supreme Court released it’s opinion in Microsoft v. Section requires an invalidity defense to be proved by clear and convincing evidence. Radio Engineering Laboratories, Inc. The Court also rejected the argument that a preponderance standard must at least apply where the evidence before the fact finder was not before the PTO during the examination process. But the question remains whether Congress has specified the applicable standard of proof.
As established here today, Congress did just that by codifying the common-law presumption of patent validity and, implicitly, the heightened standard of proof attached to it. And they do not indicate, even in dicta, that anything less than a clear-and-convincing standard would ever apply to an invalidity defense. In fact, the Court indicated to the contrary. However, while not endorsing any particular methodology, the Court did note that unconsidered evidence may be given more weight during trial via jury instructions: Simply put, if the PTO did not have all material facts before it, its considered judgment may lose significant force.
In this respect, although we have no occasion to endorse any particular formulation, we note that a jury instruction on the effect of new evidence can, and when requested, most often should be given. When warranted, the jury may be instructed to consider that it has heard evidence that the PTO had no opportunity to evaluate before granting the patent. When it is disputed whether the evidence presented to the jury differs from that evaluated by the PTO, the jury may be instructed to consider that question.
In either case, the jury may be instructed to evaluate whether the evidence before it is materially new, and if so, to consider that fact when determining whether an invalidity defense has been proved by clear and convincing evidence.
Online Elgin Serial Number Database
Why do I believe James Files is telling the truth? Here is a non-exhaustive list of reasons in random order: After all, I had been studying the Kennedy assassination for over 12 years. I was more astonished because Files had made his confession in and I was told the website had been up since
Dec 07, · How to Look Up Patent Numbers. In this Article: Using the PatFT Quick Search Using the PatFT Advanced Search Searching for International Patents Community Q&A Each patent, whether issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office or another country’s patent office, has a unique number that distinguishes it from any other patent%(12).
Gillette Date Codes “How old is this razor? Sometimes patent dates are a help, but they give you the front end of the date scale, and not always too exactly. Some razor makers put serial numbers on their razors, but we don’t always have the key to how the serial numbers fit to dates of manufacture. Gillette is one manufacturer for whom we have information on serial numbers and later date of manufacture codes that we can link to time.
Other makers included serial or manufacturing codes, but we do not have the keys. AutoStrop and Rolls are two well known manufacturers who serial numbered their razors. If you have the key to another manufacturer’s codes, please share this information with other collectors. This corresponds to the time King Gillette was directly associated with the business, and may have been at his insistence.
These serial numbers were on the top of the guard, or sometimes the inner barrel. There were no razor serial numbers from until Gillette Date Codes were used from January until
The simple guide to dating your early Singer sewing machines. Where your Singer has two serial numbers always choose the larger of the two to date your machine Singer machine serial number dating Guide Please note this is only a guide, not gospel! Some people mail me to say they have a receipt from so how could my guide have their machine as made in or ? The production runs at factories like Kilbowie were complex and long.
The castings were marked with the serial number during manufacture.
Request for numbers of patents for each year since Patent figures from to date Please tell us what format you need. It will help us if you say what assistive technology you use.
Allowance rate is one of the most common metrics, but allowance rate merely tells us how many applications received NOAs, and nothing of the quality of those applications. Besides merely getting an application allowed, clients are also concerned about the quality and scope of their claims. One way to determine this is by measuring how well a law firm preserves claims through prosecution.
The following list is composed of firms that registered no change or a decline in number of claims and is ranked based on percent change between publication and allowance. Its average number of independent claims at publication is 3. Its average number of independent claims at publication is 2. Since its founding, the firm has been interested in the global protection of intellectual property, representing clients from Australia, Brazil, China, India, Japan, and South Africa, among others.
Its attorneys focus their practice on a wide range of patent technologies, including software, business methods, and plants. Maiorana, PC is an IP boutique located in the Detroit metro area, with a large portion of its work focusing on computer and semiconductor patent applications. Founded in with two attorneys, the firm has grown rapidly in the intervening years, to a total of 58 employees in Myers Wolin, LLC In addition to losing very few independent claims, it also has one of the highest allowance rates in TC
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Print Article The Mad Hatter, known for asking the most famous unanswerable riddle. When a rule becomes a target, it ceases to be a good rule. In the three years since the Supreme Court issued its opinion in Alice, there have been positive changes to patent applications, but there remains a long-term risk that patent practitioners will use tricks to beat the Alice test.
While the patent numbers are generally given (with or without a slash year date) a PAT. MAR and PAT. stamping referring respectively to the US and Canadian inner tube patents was also used, apparently up to
Why use this guide? Printed copies of these specifications, where they exist, were created in the s following reforms to patent law. Where there were no specifications, the details of the grant recorded in the Patent Rolls were transcribed. These printed specifications and transcriptions are held by the British Library. This guide also tells you how to find other records relating to patents from the late 16th century onwards.
The specifications of inventions contain illustrations and information about the inventions themselves. What are patents and specifications of inventions?
Dating an Item by its Patent Number
This gave me pause to think about all kinds of numbers, found on flat- and hollowware. Most collectors are familiar with termini technici like scratch weight, British registration mark, etc. An article giving more info about all these numbers seemed like a good idea. Let’s start with the ‘easy ones’. Due to the common and unfortunate practice of splitting up table and flatware services at auction sales or between family members, ‘pairs’ with the numbers 3 and 4 might be offered.
A ‘pair’ with the numbers 1 and 2 might be a true pair or the first ones in a series of a larger number of items.
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Outside hinge with 3 barrels: Many of the early hinges were replaced, as have been some later ones, so the hinge barrel count is not always absolutely accurate as it is possible a repair replacement has been made. The appearance wasn’t so great and there was a tendency to rust, so a black crackle paint was used on these lighters. Black crackle Zippos were apparently produced only for shipment to armed forces overseas and none were produced for domestic sales.
The difference between a and Zippo can be determined by the insert as the ones had markings on them. The information presented here came from researching a number of Internet sites with bits and pieces from each. Zippo records indicate an overlap of bottom stamp configurations from Some lighters produced between were date coded; however, specifics remain unclear. In an error was made in the date code.